MESSAGE FROM THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS

 

R&D in efficiency support

The R&D initiatives represent one of the pillars that must support CTG Brasil’s innovation initiatives and efficiency gains. We seek to advance the identification of needs that can be met by projects aligned with the strategic direction of the company, in order to comply with the vision of becoming a reference in clean energy generation in Brazil.

 

Rather than complying with the regulatory determination to allocate part of our net operating revenue to these activities, we seek consistent and orderly progress to achieve improvements in energy generation processes, based on criteria of operational excellence, risk reduction and revenue optimization. Increasingly, our priority is to focus on innovative solutions that contribute to the resolution of the sector’s challenges, increase the security of electricity supply and generate value for the whole society.

 

We allocated 0.4% of net revenue to these activities, in addition to 0.4% for the National Fund for Scientific and Technological Development (FNDCT) and 0.2% for the Ministry of Mines and Energy, in resources that fund studies and research planning of the energy system expansion. Therefore, we follow the mandatory application of these resources expected in the concession contracts and regulated by the Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency (Aneel).

 

We have several projects that stand out in this objective of ensuring permanent innovation in processes and services, which benefit not only the company as the entire Brazilian electric system. Thus, we support the strengthening of a sector that plays a vital role for the country, as a provider of essential services to the population and a driver of economic development.

 

In 2017, we allocated R$ 6.4 million to these projects, of which 34% related to the environment and 23% to energy systems planning. We concluded important projects during the year, especially an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV or drone) for remote monitoring of reservoirs, which was awarded as the best product and best technical work during the Congress of Technological Innovation in Electric Energy (Citenel).

 

In the current R&D cycle, we are implementing projects of great relevance for our operation and the entire generation system. Among others, there is a dam safety study, with a methodology of integrated management of risks associated with emergencies; a study of identification of macrophytes, aquatic plants that represent a problem for the operation of the hydroelectric power plants, and another one of genetic control of the golden mussel, a mollusk that became one of the most feared invasive species in the Brazilian rivers.

 

In addition to driving our growth, partnerships with institutes, universities, and technology-boosting companies help us honor our commitment to quality and reliability with our consumers, employees, and shareholders. We also encourage the training of technicians, investing in specialization, masters and doctorates.

 

We have challenges to move forward more assertively in R&D activities. We plan to improve our process by becoming more proactive in identifying projects and allocating resources, knowing what solutions we want to demand from research institutions so that they are aligned with our strategy and the day-to-day problems of the company. At the same time, we strive to internally widen the awareness that R&D initiatives need to be incorporated by professionals at our front lines, so that they identify opportunities for projects that improve the operation, and that the R&D area is also close to operations.

 

We want R&D to be part of our day-to-day business, in a perspective to constantly improving the quality of processes, with tools that guarantee the safety and reliability of our services. These are projects that also mean unique opportunities for sustainable growth of the company, capable of generating benefits for our customers, shareholders, employees, partners, suppliers and society.

 

With this, we reinforce the understanding that innovation must be in our DNA, as one of the greatest drivers of competitiveness and growth, improving the company’s performance, both financial and administrative, to consolidate CTG Brasil in a market in accelerated changes and increasingly demanding.

 

Evandro Vasconcelos

Vice-President

 

 

 

R&D at CTG Brasil

For five years in the Country, CTG Brasil is part of China Three Gorges Corporation (CTG), one of the world leaders in clean energy, in hydro, wind and solar power. Present in 47 countries, CTG has investments in Asia, the Americas, Europe and Africa, yonder being responsible for operating five of the world’s 12 largest hydroelectric power plants, being the largest hydropower producer on the planet.

In Brazil, the company has 17 hydroelectric plants and 11 wind farms in its portfolio, with 8.28 GW in total installed capacity. The country’s second largest private power generator, CTG Brasil counts on the dedication of its local talents and is committed to contribute to the Brazilian energy matrix, based on social responsibility and respect for the environment.

 

R&D Strategy

In mid-2016, CTG Brasil created the Research and Development area, aiming to give greater focus to this activity to support its growth plan and maintain compliance with the Research & Development (R&D) Program created by Law 9.991/2000 and regulated by the National Electric Power Agency (Aneel).

CTG Brasil’s research and development projects are designed to promote the culture of innovation and stimulate the generation of knowledge in the electric sector, intensifying its partnerships with the main centers of excellence in Brazil and abroad to solve or mitigate, through the use of research, the sector’s chronical problems, improve the operational efficiency and the plants availability in Brazil, by improving processes, new products and business models.

 

 

R&D PROJECTS FOCUS

Contribute to the improvement, stability and reliability of the Brazilian electric power sector

 

 

Improve the efficiency of existing plants operations

 

 

Solve or mitigate complex and recurring problems, focusing on the electric sector needs

 

 

Mitigate the risk of regulatory penalties

 

 

Explore new business opportunities

HISTORY OF CTG BRASIL’S ACTIVITY

2013

CTG starts operations in the country and enters into an agreement with EDP – Energias do Brasil – to invest in the Brazilian energy market.

2014

Acquired a 50% stake in Santo Antônio do Jari (PA) and Cachoeira Caldeirão (AP) hydropower plants, 33.3% in São Manoel hydropower plant and 49% in 11 wind farms in Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Norte.

2015

Acquired 100% of Salto (GO) and Garibaldi (SC) hydropower plants, from Triunfo Participações.

2016

Won an auction of the Ministry of Mines and Energy and assumed the concession of the Jupiá (SP) and Ilha Solteira (SP) hydropower plants. In December of the same year, it acquires the assets of Duke Energy in Brazil, with eight hydropower plants and two Small Hydropower Plants (PCHs).

2017

Start the modernization process of Jupiá and Ilha Solteira hydropower plants, a project that will last for ten years.

18  projects

were identified and selected, totaling approximately

R$ 30 million

Highlights

In addition to new projects, it was highlighted in 2017 CTG Brasil’s participation for the first time in Citenel (Congress of Technological Innovation in Electric Energy) as sponsor of the meeting, with the assembly of a booth for the presentation of the company and its main R&D projects carried out under the Aneel’s regulated program. Citenel is the biggest event for energy companies and research institutes to unveil their technological innovations.

CITENEL’S BEST PROJECT

The Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV or drone) project for the remote monitoring of reservoirs of hydroelectric power plants, developed by CTG Brasil, won the first place in 2017 in two categories of the three possible awards. The project was voted “Best Product in Exhibition” and “Best Technical Work in Research and Development”. The choice was made between more than 170 products on display and about 350 technical papers inscribed in this event that is the biggest Brazilian electricity sector innovation event.

 

INNOVATION EDICT – SENAI

The project “Biotechnology Control of Golden Mussel Infestation” was selected as one of the most innovative projects in its category through the Innovation Edict for Industry in early 2017. A cooperation agreement was signed between CTG Brasil and Senai for the project execution with the counterpart of the use of its structures, laboratories and researchers, in addition to funding part of the research.

Structuring and process

Applying the best market practices in project and portfolio management, CTG Brasil’s R&D area works with a customized methodology. The processes and procedures are supported by a computational tool that takes into account the level of complexity and the number of projects resulting from a greater volume of resources available for investment with the completion of the integration process between CTG Brasil group companies.

The area operates guided by a R&D Policy that establishes guidelines and governance for the selection, prioritization and approval of projects. Under this new policy, in 2017, three market consultations were conducted to capture projects that address the solution of chronic electric sector problems. From 45 proposals received from various suppliers, institutes and research centers, 18 projects were identified and selected, six of which were approved and five are in the final contractual negotiation stage, totaling approximately R$ 30 million.

The R&D policy and actions aim to adequately distribute human and financial resources for projects that demonstrate originality, relevance and economic viability of products and services in the processes and end uses of electric energy. These projects should be integrated into the investment plan and CTG Brasil’s commitment to the future, promoting benefits, performance and improvements to assets under management.

 

Investments

In 2017, the four companies directly and indirectly controlled by CTG Brasil earmarked R$ 6.4 million for R&D projects, with the largest volume (34%) for environmental studies.

The concession agreements stipulate that energy generators apply at least 1% of net operating revenue in research and development. The projects need to have their application proven in the electrical sector and be framed under one or more themes for investment in R&D defined by Aneel.

They should also be grouped according to the innovation chain phases defined by the Aneel Manual, which are summarized as follows:

Directed basic research - Theoretical or experimental phase that involves the search of knowledge about new phenomena.

Applied research - Application of knowledge acquired to develop or improve products and processes.

Experimental development - Proves or demonstrates the technical or functional feasibility of new products, processes, systems and services, or their improvement, for later commercial application.

Head of series - Improvement of prototype obtained in previous R&D project, with definition of basic characteristics of the production line and the product.

Pioneer lot - Considers aspects related to the production in pilot scale of head of series developed in previous project.

Market insertion - Phase that ends the innovation chain and seeks to disseminate the results obtained in the electric sector.

 

 

More information about the Aneel Manual

COMPLETED PROJECT

TOPIC

The project’s goal is to develop a system that enhances energy conversion by concentrators that maximize incident energy in high-performance photovoltaic minicells (PV) modularly connected, using less temperature-sensitive triple junction solar cells, which increases the throughput and life of multicellular solar modules. With the state-of-the-art technology nationalization, a unique technological product will be created, which can be applied in small and medium-sized photovoltaic plants, increasing the efficiency of PV (photovoltaic) modules and reducing plant costs. Subsequently, a system can be produced for domestic and rural properties.

The project includes the development of a PV concentrator system, a prototype and the engineering design of a pilot plant with solar tracking, which allows enhancing the energy utilization of solar irradiation. The mini pilot plant can be added to the energy potential of hydroelectric plants. The initial tests will be carried out in an area located at the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, properly equipped and designed for this purpose.

The system means stimulating the energy generation with a clean, renewable source, without atmospheric emissions and with high efficiency that compensates maintenance subsequent costs. Additionally, it provides reasonableness of costs, since these values are directly related to the acquisition price of the photovoltaic modules. The economic advantage comes from the fact that it occupies a 40% lower area than conventional PV systems with costs similar to monocrystalline systems in the market.

 

ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF GENERATION OF ELECTRICITY ENERGY

SUB-TOPIC: NEW MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT TO GENERATE ENERGY FROM ALTERNATIVE SOURCES

 

 

 

Occupies

40%

 less area than conventional systems

Development of photovoltaic solar concentrators for power generation

COMPLETED PROJECT

Emergencies in hydroelectric dams represent an operational risk and raise concerns among shareholders, governments and communities for the potential economic, social and environmental impacts of undesirable events.

This project aims to develop a methodology that makes it possible to identify and manage risks related to the structural and operational safety of the reservoir and of the dam, as well as the risks and vulnerabilities existing ate the downstream flood valley. The integrated management of these risks should therefore give greater support to decisions regarding the management of operational and emergency safety, reducing the time to adopt preventive or emergency measures, minimizing the possibility of accidents and socio-environmental impacts.

The process takes into account the interrelationship between the dam+reservoir system (DRS) and downstream valley system (DVS). Even though both have their own dynamics and change over time, integrated risk management enables the adoption of articulated and coordinated actions to reduce identified vulnerabilities and mitigate associated risks.

The tool to be developed will allow the execution of the third stage of dam safety management, joining actions that emphasize first stage criteria - focused on design aspects and structural and operational safety (in the SBR system) - and those of the second stage (SVI), to deal in an integrated way with operational, structural geotechnical and hydraulic-hydrological aspects.

The integrated risk assessment and analysis methodology used Chavantes HPP as a pilot project and considered the impacts along the Paranapanema River generation cascade, serving as a test of the system’s functionality. Based on this, a manual of guidelines and technical criteria for the management of risks in dams – that could be used by other hydropower generation companies to support the development of their own risk management systems – was developed.

 

BASINS AND RESERVOIRS MANAGEMENT

SUB-TOPIC: DAM SAFETY MANAGEMENT OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

 

A manual

of guidelines and technical criteria was developed for the management of risks in dams

 

 

TOPIC

Development of an integrated risk management methodology associated with emergencies in dams

COMPLETED PROJECT

 

Development methodology of the deficit cost function

TOPIC

ELECTRICAL ENERGY SYSTEMS PLANNING

SUB-TOPIC: INTEGRATED PLANNING OF OF ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS EXPANSION

The correct calculation of the energy shortage’s cost is essential for planning the National Interconnected System (SIN) expansion and operation, as well as for energy pricing by agents in the Brazilian electricity sector.

The Deficit Cost Function represents a decisive parameter for the computational models used in these plans formulation, as severe penalties are applied to energy deficit scenarios in the generation dispatch optimization model. It also indicates more properly thermoelectric plants operating costs, the supply security and the price formation of short-term market price (PDL).

Aneel’s strategic project, it was executed with the support of several companies in the electrical sector, including CTG Brasil, and studied new models to estimate the cost of energy shortages. The objective was to develop a methodology for the elaboration of the electricity Deficit Cost Function that would best represent the loss incurred by society in the occurrence of an electric energy rationing and, consequently, would lead to the most efficient signaling for the planning of the structural expansion of generation and transmission in the SIN.

The methodology currently applied in the Brazilian electric sector is out of date, since it was defined based on information from Input-Output Matrix, published in 1996 by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). Established through Resolution Nº. 109, of January 24, 2002, the electricity Deficit Cost Function has been updated annually by Aneel according to the variation of IGP-DI index. In practice, however, the deficit cost should reflect how much the insufficient supply of electricity costs to society.

Thus, the project proposes a methodology to elaborate a new Deficit Cost Function, with an estimate of the more accurate and current curve of deficit costs, able to signal more properly operation cost of thermoelectric plants and the parameters for energy price calculation in new energy auctions. The work also included field research with residential, commercial and industrial electricity consumers.

 

 

The cost of the deficit should

reflect

the cost to society of the
insufficient supply of electricity

 

 

COMPLETED PROJECT

 

The project consisted in the development of a methodology to evaluate if the resources applied in social and environmental actions bring effective returns that justify the investments and boost the local development, with real effect on the environment or people’s lives.

The methodology evaluated the cost-benefit ratio of initiatives from the econometric analysis of field survey data. The objective was to establish an effective tool both in allocating resources and prioritizing already funded actions and in making decisions about the feasibility of new socio-environmental projects to meet the demands of different stakeholders (companies, governments, communities, among others). Thus, it considered two different approaches: econometric results (quantitative) and perception of the beneficiary communities.

Eight initiatives developed around the plants located along the Paranapanema River were evaluated, with reference also to the NBR 16001: 2012 standard of Social Responsibility Management. The results were expressed in terms of variables that, for the most part, can’t be monetized without resorting to a broad set of hypothesis and assumptions. Effectively, there were statistically significant effects in the income dimension in two programs and in the employment dimension in four actions.

Examples are the results of the Playing and Learning initiative, which welcomes children in Taquarituba (SP). Women whose children participate in the program are 23.8% more likely to be in permanent jobs and for parents/fathers the chances of full employment are 21.7% higher. And each R $ 1.00 invested in the program generated R $ 1.47 increase in family income in the year evaluated. In the Apprentice - Towards First Job program, each R$ 1.00 invested by the company provided R $ 10.04 of salary for adolescents and R $ 5.67 of family income per capita.

ENVIRONMENT

SUB-TOPIC: SOCIAL-ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND CONSTRAINTS OF ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS

TOPIC

Cost-benefit evaluation of socio-environmental programs in hydroelectric plants vicinity

 

Each

R$1.00

invested in the Brincando e Aprendendo program generated R$ 1.47 increase in family income in the  assessed year

COMPLETED PROJECT

 

Remote sensing of areas surrounding reservoirs using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

TOPIC

SUPERVISION, CONTROL AND PROTECTION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY SYSTEMS

SUB-TOPIC: CONTROL SYSTEMS IMPLEMENTATION (ROBUST, ADAPTIVE AND INTELLIGENT)

The project has developed an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV or drone) specifically for the remote monitoring of hydroelectric power plants reservoirs. Among its differentials are the fact that it is a hybrid vehicle (engines that combine combustion and electricity), which allows high flight time and load capacity, and the possibility of performing landings autonomously, even on moving targets, allowing greater effectiveness in the identification of invasions and dam banks’ disordered occupations.

The CTG Brasil project won in 2017 the first place in two categories of the three awards of the Congress of Technological Innovation in Electric Energy: Best Product in Exhibition and Best Technical Work in Research and Development. The choice was made between more than 170 products on display and about 350 technical papers inscribed in this event that is the biggest Brazilian electricity sector innovation event.

The project developed two prototypes - the first one consisted of four electric motors and the second one coupled in the center part of the vehicle a fifth central combustion engine for increased flight autonomy – and navigation software. The operator stands in a pickup or a boat to approach the area of interest and perform the images capture that will be analyzed in detail.

The UAV facilitates and reduces the cost of monitoring reservoir banks, which is a challenge for hydroelectric plants, since these edges are composed of large areas of closed vegetation and are difficult to access. Its supervision entails a high cost in image acquisition and teams maintenance, as well as bringing challenges related to temporality between certain events (an invasion, for example) or risks to professionals and environmental damages (on-site performance, access to closed areas).

Because it was developed with national technology, the prototype makes its acquisition and maintenance more economically advantageous for Brazil’s hydroelectric power generators. It is expected that the monitoring activities using UAV will be initiated in the areas under concession, still on an experimental scale, in the year 2018.

 

The CTG Brasil project won in 2017

the first

 place in two categories of the three awards of the Congress of Technological Innovation in Electric Energy (Citenel)

 

PROJECT IN PROGRESS

Monitoring the development and displacement of aquatic macrophyte banks in reservoirs using geotechnologies and remote sensing techniques

TOPIC

ENVIRONMENT

SUB-TOPIC: OTHER (MONITORING THE DEVELOPMENT AND DISPLACEMENT OF POOLS OF AQUATIC MACROPHYTES IN RESERVOIRS)

Aquatic plants, especially macrophytes, are a serious problem in hydroelectric plants, because their excess jeopardizes the reservoirs multiple uses by affecting both power generation and fishing activities, water sports and irrigation. This project includes a computational tool development that will implement methodology and identification algorithms for floating and submerged aquatic macrophytes.

The system integrates orbital and suborbital images, hydroacoustic surveys, water quality, meteorological and operational data,, hydroacoustic and ecobatimometric surveys – which measure depths at sample points for biomass definition - combined with the modeling of hydrological and hydrodynamic parameters. Thus, it goes beyond the monitoring practices that are summarized in the visualization and systematic and corrective cleaning with the mechanical removal of the plants.

It is intended to reach results that make it possible to predict the formation, growth, detachment and displacement of macrophytic banks in reservoirs, supporting decision making in a predictive and preventive way.

Although the images for studies of this nature are free, the processing requires specialized professionals, specific technology and automatic radiometric, spatial and temporal search, which implies difficulties and high costs. With the system, it will be possible to visualize changes in water quality throughout the reservoir, contributing to a better understanding of the processes that are occurring, such as eventual algal blooms, allowing actions to be taken more quickly compared to usual methods to collect information about water quality.

Hydrodynamic modeling will be processed in an integrating system, which will allow much more assertive and economical decision making for the company, the National System Operator (ONS) and the sector’s agents, as it can be used in any hydroelectric power plant reservoir. The study will also give rise to a master’s thesis and a postgraduate project.

 

 

The aim is to arrive at results that make it possible to predict the formation,

growth,

detachment and displacement of macrophytic banks in reservoirs

PROJECT IN PROGRESS

 

Development and application of an innovative program for the conservation and recovery of the Paranapanema River fish stock - Phase 2

TOPIC

ENVIRONMENT

SUB-TOPIC: SOCIAL-ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND CONSTRAINTS OF ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS

This project represents the second stage of a study developed between 2011 and 2016, when information was collected on the ichthyofauna of the Paranapanema River Basin to subsidize stocking of fish species. Phase 2 comprises an innovative program to recover natural populations, combining the environmental and physical characteristics of the river basin and the biology of the species, with the real maintenance of the dynamic balance of this ichthyofauna, ensuring the fish stocks.

The initial phase included an unprecedented approach by field methodologies and the integration of various fields of biology (such as ecology, taxonomy, and cytogenetics), which allowed to determine the main areas of recruitment and release and to demonstrate which species should really be given priority. The results obtained at that stage showed little effectiveness of the stands and the need for operational and economic optimization of the initiative.

In the continuity of the project, the objective is to make feasible new techniques and actions through an innovative fish management and repopulation program for reservoirs of hydroelectric power plants. Ecological, molecular genetics and cytogenetic studies will be used to optimize the conservation and recovery of the fish stock, aiming at an economy of financial resources, as well as the effective and real determination of the species propitious and necessary to the Paranapanema basin.

The control will be done by the release of key species and in a smaller number in one of the reservoirs and the conventional release in another subsequent reservoir, with monitoring to verify the process effectiveness and the possibility of recovery of the studied areas. The study will be quantitative and qualitative, involving a correct genetic evaluation regarding the species and the knowledge of the ecological data of recruitment, in order to program what species, the quantities and where to realize the fish stocking.

The expected results combine environmental and socioeconomic gains from the application of effective tools, culminating in the reestablishment of fishing activity and minimization of the direct stocking of fingerlings and juveniles, which is a problem for the energy sector and of extreme importance for environments already impacted, as occurs in the Paranapanema River basin. Several postdoctoral and master’s degrees are planned in the project.

 

The objective is to make

possible

new techniques and actions through an innovative fish management and repopulation program for reservoirs of HPPs

PROJECT IN PROGRESS

 

Development and validation of protocols for monitoring terrestrial environments surrounding hydroelectric plants

TOPIC

ENVIRONMENT

SUB-TOPIC: SOCIAL-ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND CONSTRAINTS OF ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS

The study aims to select scientifically valid ecological indicators, defining detailed protocols for fauna and flora monitoring around hydroelectric plants. Based on empirical data and data collected in the field, these indicators combine technical reliability and practical applicability and will be part of a Technical Manual that details the methods of obtaining and analyzing data and can be used as a reference in licensing processes, environmental auditing and in impact mitigation basic plans.

The protocols consolidate visions of environmental agents, government technicians, academic professionals and managers of the electric sector, with the objective of overcoming the difficulties in defining what information to obtain, what methods to use and how to analyze the data in those processes. With the selection of efficient indicators, it will be possible to extend the area contemplated and the monitoring deadlines, using methods recognized by public managers and providing results whose interpretation is subject to clear rules.

The project foresees techniques application for the sampling of ecosystems, flora and fauna (vertebrates and invertebrates) in varied situations, creating a representative database. The results can reduce additional requirements, fieldwork time and material sorting, thus saving resources on the licensing and renewal processes. The project’s scope includes four doctoral theses and three master’s dissertations.

The pilot project is being applied in semideciduous seasonal forest, a subtype of Atlantic Forest, where a good part of the Brazilian generating park is located. There will be developed the activities of validation and testing of the functionality of the methods and indicators developed, serving on the basis of adaptations to the realities of other biomes that have specific peculiarities.

 

The objective is to

select

ecologically valid ecological indicators, defining detailed protocols for the monitoring of fauna and flora in the surroundings of HPPs

PROJECT IN PROGRESS

 

Golden mussel infestation control through genetic induction of infertility

TOPIC

ENVIRONMENT

SUB-TOPIC: BIOTECHNOLOGY - ITS USE IN POPULATIONS CONTROL BY THE INDUCTION OF INFERTILITY

Through this research, CTG Brasil invests in the golden mussel’s control (Limnoperna fortunei), a mollusk that is among the most feared invasive species in Brazilian rivers and has become a major concern in hydroelectric power plants. The goal is to create genetically modified mussels that will be released alive in hydroelectric plants reservoirs and other infested sites to produce only sterile descendants, leading to their elimination over time. This same model has already been used to control dengue and malaria mosquitoes in Brazil and in other countries.

Infestation by golden mussels, an exotic invasive species originating in South Asia, is one of the most important causes of fouling affecting parts exposed to aquatic environments. In hydroelectric plants, there is a particularly problematic impact on heat exchangers, since mussel inlay restricts flow and, if not properly treated, can cause complete blockage of the cooling system, leading to its collapse.

Mollusk causes significant economic losses caused by frequent shutdowns for maintenance, cleaning, exchange of pipes or parts, as well as higher energy consumption to transport water in partially blocked systems. As there are no natural predators outside Asia, infestation causes unprecedented ecological and economic damage.

The project is developed on different fronts: identification of genes related to reproduction in the mussel’s genome; survey of the infestation degree in river basins and reservoirs; molecular tools to modify the mussels’ genome and regulatory instruments definition for the use of the new solution. Twenty-six mussels reproductive-related genes have been identified by bioinformatics and thus the project progresses in solving the problem definitively.

 

Already identified by bioinformatics

26

reproduction-related genes in the mussels that will be tested and modified in the research next stages to obtain a lineage to eradicate the infestations

PROJECT IN PROGRESS

 

Technologies development for valuation of ecosystem services and natural capital in environmental programs

TOPIC

ENVIRONMENT

SUB-TOPIC: SOCIAL-ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND CONSTRAINTS OF ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS

New geospatial, bioacoustics and carbon measurement technologies were applied based on this project that aims to create a technical manual of methodologies and tools that improve the knowledge of the structural and functional aspects of revegetation ranges applied in the constitution of ecological corridors. They include assessment of forest biomass, biodiversity, floristic and water quality and soil conditions, as well as valuation of natural capital and models to design scenarios of systemic services and determine environmental impacts.

This set allowed to identify the presence and the diversity of fauna, as well as the functionality of the ecological corridor in promoting the traffic, the gene flow and the animals’ movement. The possibility of valuing natural capital addresses important issues and strategic aspects that ensure a sustainable return of the initiative, while involving financial, environmental, social and intellectual results.

The methodologies allowed to reduce the time spent in the surveys and the human error that could occur in the evaluation processes. This can provide cost savings and greater assertiveness of revegetation programs, establishing more effective restoration techniques, species used in the programs and, especially, the spatial ecology of the landscape in environmental conservation areas implemented.

The project results contribute to better management of environmental impacts, including climate change, greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity levels and wildlife species. They also allow the evaluation of some ecosystem services, such as pollination, seed dispersal and nutrient cycling, that provide ecosystem improvements, environmental education, water quality and their respective uses, soil conservation and erosion control through reforestation.

This project is directly related to economic valuation and, more specifically, to the strategic, tactical and systematic planning of a company. In strategic planning, it can generate relevant information to parameterize long-term and / or structural investments related to environmental aspects, promoting sustainability. Tactically, it produces data that allows operational performance monitoring and, consequently, compliance evaluation with the strategic guidelines and the possible need to correct course. Finally, operationally it provides elements that help to diagnose the potential economic impact of changes in biodiversity and ecosystem services earlier.

 

The project results contribute to better management of

environmental

 impacts, including climate change, greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity levels and wildlife species

PROJECT IN PROGRESS

 

Creation of intelligent cavitation reduction system for air injection in Francis turbines

TOPIC

REDUCING FAULTS IN HYDROMECANIC SYSTEMS

SUB-TOPIC: CAVITATION AND AIR INJECTION MONITORING

The project foresees the development of an intelligent and innovative system to drive air injection in a Francis turbine, in order to reduce the cavitation that produces undesirable effects in hydroelectric plants operation. Cavitation is created from bubbles formed by reducing pressure, which implode and erode the metal, reflecting in diminishing turbine efficiency, vibrations and excessive noise, cracks and consequential power loss, as well as risk of equipment collapse.

The originality of the project is to incorporate a new technique of monitoring and diagnosing cavitation type in the turbine, with aeration’s active actuation at different pre-defined points, quantities and pressures. Air injection, as indicated in existing studies, can be effective in eliminating or mitigating the consequences of various turbine instabilities, providing improved performance, increased operational flexibility, and shorter intervals between engine shutdowns due to cavitation damage.

The theme assumes greater relevance due to operation’s monitoring and analysis best techniques, prototypes construction and availability increase. In many cases, the conditions that subject turbine components to cavitation, with mechanical stresses above the projected one, cause wear in the equipment, in this case in Francis rotor.

In addition to improving the turbine’s operation, the project includes academic research, testing and analysis, trials and validation in power plants, and can be adapted and applied in other similar hydraulic turbines.

 

 

In addition to

improving

turbine operation, the project includes academic research, testing and analysis, testing and validation in power plants

 

PROJECT IN PROGRESS

Experimental development of a servo pneumatic unit prototype to regulate hydroelectric plants’ turbines speed

TOPIC

SUPERVISION, CONTROL AND PROTECTION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY SYSTEMS

SUB-TOPIC: CONTROL SYSTEMS IMPLEMENTATION (ROBUST, ADAPTIVE AND INTELLIGENT)

The project seeks to fill a gap in the Brazilian market with the development of a prototype that uses pneumatics to regulate the speed of hydroelectric turbines. The system will be developed to replace higher-cost hydraulic units, many imported, in smaller plants.

Turbine speed controllers, which perform water flow control, are one of the automation and control systems essential for the accurate and safe operation of electric power generation, meeting growing demands on performance, robustness and cost-effectiveness. With the advances of pneumatic technology and closed-loop control techniques, it is feasible to apply pneumatic units to perform this function of hydraulic actuators.

The advantages are reduced cost of equipment, cleaner operation (without the mineral oil environmental impact) and ease of maintenance. In addition, a more robust pneumatic system collaborates to reduce the generators unavailability and, consequently, to increase the capacity of electric power generation. These factors contribute to the greater economic viability of renewable water sources.

The prototype will be composed of pneumatic cylinders and servo valves, compressors, sensors, power unit and embedded digital controller with innovative control algorithm for compensation of peculiarities of pneumatic systems.

The prototype applicability will be proven through functionalities verification in laboratory, with specific trials in bench tests to be designed and built during project execution. There will also be the validation of the solution in the field by the pilot application in the 438 kVA unit of auxiliary services of Salto Grande HPP, of Rio Paranapanema Energia.

 

The advantages are

reduced

cost of equipment, cleaner operation (without the environmental impact of mineral oil) and ease of maintenance

PROJECT IN PROGRESS

 

Crack analysis in pre-distributor stay vanes

TOPIC

FAILURE ANALYSIS IN MECHANICAL SYSTEMS

SUB-TOPIC: INTERACTION FLUID STRUCTURE COMBINING EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL ANALYSIS TO OBTAIN CLEARER CRACKS IN THE FIXED PLATTERS OF THE PRE DISTRIBUTOR

The project will use the latest Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools and experimental techniques to more clearly understand the occurrence of cracks in the pipeline of hydroelectric power plants pre-distributor. The appearing of these cracks, which are due to the turbines vortex detachment, represents a recurring problem for the plants, as it can interrupt the operation, affect the generating units availability and increase maintenance costs. In addition, it may have an impact on plant safety because, in an extreme scenario, a crosspiece can separate from the pre-distributor ring and be drawn to the turbine rotor.

The originality of the project is mainly in the use of CFD - which combines fluid mechanics and numerical computation - and experimental analysis to consider both the flow and its interaction with the plant structure. This will allow a calculation of the stresses on the fixed crosspieces that currently can’t be performed with the use of conventional tools. It is also the research’s objective to give rise to two master’s theses, one focused on numerical analysis and another, on experimental.

The process will be applied and validated at the Ilha Solteira plant, which has a long history of maintenance in the repair of these cracks.

 

 

It is also the objective of the research to give rise to

two master’s

theses, one focused on numerical analysis and another on experimental

 

PROJECT IN PROGRESS

Model MDDH+: stochastic tools applied to alternative sources, demand mid/long term behavior modeling and market risk analysis

TOPIC

OPERATION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY SYSTEMS

SUB-TOPIC: MODELS DEVELOPMENT FOR THE OPTIMIZATION OF HYDROTHERMAL DISPATCH

This study represents the third phase of the project that had its first phase started in 2008 and the second one completed in 2015, always with the objective of optimizing the hydrothermal dispatch of the Brazilian electricity sector. Called Hydrothermal Dispatch Model Plus (MDDH+, in the acronym in Portuguese), the project also incorporates the use of stochastic tools for wind and solar generation sources (statistics applied in the calculation of probability depending on or resulting from a random variable). The model also analyzes factors such as energy demand, environmental issues, analysis and projections of hydrological risk (GSF - Generation Scaling Factor).

When contemplating other generation sources, the model will allow establishing more realistic scenarios of a hydro-thermo-wind dispatch, besides treating the model of seasonalization of the assured energy taking into account aspects of market decision. It will also allow a hybrid representation of the generating system (in which one part of the system can be represented by individualized plants and another part by equivalent systems of energy).

The technique to be used in the assured energy seasonalization module aggregates the Game Theory and new methodologies to establish the stochasticity of demand, as well as risk analyzes arising from the planning models of the operation.

The modeling of the variable Natural Energy Affluent (ENA) is determinant for the proper functioning of the three fundamental pillars of the Brazilian electric sector: expansion planning, planning and operation scheduling, and accounting and settlement process of energy transactions in the short term market.

The use of the tool, therefore, is of interest to all electric sector - generators, distributors, transmission and trading companies and sector agents, such as ONS, CCEE, EPE, MME and Aneel. The developed platform makes the product generic, without the need of adaptations that can make the wide use and the application unfeasible, and provides benefits to the society as a whole.

The platform developed makes the product

generic,

without the need for adaptations that can make the wide use and application unfeasible, and provides benefits to society as a whole

PROJECT IN PROGRESS

 

Results maximization models of the seasonalization process of HPPs physical guarantee

TOPIC

ELECTRICAL ENERGY SYSTEMS PLANNING

SUB-TOPIC: MARKET FORECASTING METHODOLOGY FOR DIFFERENT TIME LEVELS AND HIRING STRATEGIES

The project foresees the development of a robust computational tool to support decision making on the seasonalization of physical guarantee, a crucial issue for hydroelectric generators that make this definition under great uncertainty. The company must take into account several unknown variables, such as the value of the Settlement of Differences Price (PLD) in each of the months of the following year, the energy that can be produced from the natural inflows to the reservoirs (Affluent Natural Energy - ENA) and the system’s total hydraulic generation in each of these months, among others.

The tool will combine three forecasting models (ENA / PLD, pricing and contract management), in order to optimize the physical guarantee seasonalization in an integrated way to the generator’s contracts portfolio (considering deadlines, prices and volumes), reducing the risks and uncertainties that affect financial results.

In addition to considering specific control criteria established according to the risk profile assumed by the company, the model will be based on the Game Theory to consider the strategy of other generators. This is because the gains or losses of a given seasonalization profile depend to a large extent on the seasonalization adopted by other mills and, in particular, on the allocation of the production of the Energy Reallocation Mechanism (MRE).

This is because the gains or losses of a given seasonalization profile depend to a large extent on the seasonalization adopted by other mills and, in particular, on the allocation of the Energy Reallocation Mechanism (MRE) production.

The system will be easy to use by users and will allow automated access to the usual sector databases (National System Operator and Electric Energy Trading Chamber) and models of price formation and dispatch of power plants (Newave and Decomp), constituting vital information for the effectiveness of the seasonalization process.

The project also includes training for know-how transfer and training for the system’s use, as well as for optimization methods, theories of joint behaviors and risk metrics, among others. As scientific production, two theses will be developed, one of masters and one of doctorate.

 

 

O sistema será de

fácil

utilização pelos usuários

e permitirá acesso automatizado a bases de dados usuais

 

2018

R&D YEARBOOK

PROJECT COORDINATION

Regulatory Affairs / Research & Development

Brand, Communication & Sustainability

 

CONTENT AND EDITION

Editora Contadino

 

GRAPHIC DESIGN

Multi Design

 

TRANSLATION

Bom Fim Conteúdo

 

PHOTOGRAPHY

Wander Malagrine, Henrique Manreza, Ferdinando Ramos, Acervo Lactec and Acervo CTG Brasil

 

 

COMPLETED PROJECT

 

COMPLETED PROJECT

 

COMPLETED PROJECT

 

COMPLETED PROJECT

 

PROJECT IN PROGRESS

 

PROJECT IN PROGRESS

 

PROJECT IN PROGRESS

 

PROJECT IN PROGRESS

 

PROJECT IN PROGRESS

 

PROJECT IN PROGRESS

 

PROJECT IN PROGRESS

 

PROJECT IN PROGRESS

 

PROJECT IN PROGRESS

 

PROJECT IN PROGRESS

 

 

COMPLETED PROJECT